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How to Build a Skin Care Routine As seen in the NY Times by Kari Molvar

https://www.nytimes.com/guides/tmagazine/skincare-routine

Skin Care Tips Before You Start

Three Main Steps

Think of your skin-care routine as consisting of three main steps:


  • Cleansing — Washing your face. 

  • Toning — Balancing the skin.

  • MoisturizingHydrating and softening the skin.

The goal of any skin-care routine is to tune up your complexion so it’s functioning at its best, and also troubleshoot or target any areas you want to work on. “Beauty routines are an opportunity to notice changes within yourself,” says the San Francisco skin-care specialist Kristina Holey. As your skin needs shifts with age, so will your products. Still, she adds, “it’s not about creating perfection.”   Allow these three steps to become your daily ritual that fortifies your skin and grounds your day.

Give it Time

The science behind skin-care products has come a long way but there’s still no such thing as an instant fix — you need time to reap the benefits, says Dr. Rachel Nazarian, a Manhattan dermatologist at Schweiger Dermatology Group. “Results are only seen through consistent use,” she explains. Generally, aim to use a product over at least six weeks, once or twice daily, to notice a difference.  

Tip: With any skin-care product, apply in order of consistency — from thinnest to thickest. For example, cleanser, toner (if you use it), serum, and then moisturizer.


Cleansing

Washing your face is the most basic and essential step of any routine, says the New York City dermatologist Dr. Carlos Charles. “Our skin comes in contact with environmental pollutants, dirt and other factors each day that should be gently removed.” Wash twice a day, morning and night, to avoid clogged pores, dullness and acne.

Find Your Facial Cleanser

The right formula cleanses your skin without stripping essential, healthy oils. Take it easy with exfoliating scrubs (use once a week) and avoid those with crushed walnut shells or abrasive ingredients. 

For everyday cleansing, here’s what to look for: 

Toning

How to Use Toner

For many, the word “toner” brings to mind stinging astringents from the ’80s. “The original was an alcohol-based product that was used to dry up oily skin and remove any leftover dirt following cleansing,” Dr. Nazarian says. Today’s formulas, however, have evolved. Think of them as supplements — these thin liquids deliver an extra shot of nutrients, helping the other products in your regimen absorb better, while still balancing your complexion. Most experts, the New York City aesthetician Jordana Mattioli says, consider toner to be optional: “It can be a good way to add in specific ingredients that you may not have in your other products or add another layer of skin-replenishment.” If you have the time and inclination, here are some hero ingredients to look for: 


  • Alpha and beta hydroxy acids to gently remove dead skin cells that can clog pores, improve sun-damaged skin and minimize dullness.

  • Hyaluronic acid to boost hydration, seal in dewiness and plump skin to subtly treat fine lines.

  • Rose water and green tea to calm irritation and reduce redness with an anti-inflammatory effect.

  • Vitamin E and C to fight daily exposure to free radicals that can age your skin.

What is Toner?

“Toners should be done after cleansing and before putting on anything else,” Mattioli says. The traditional application method is to saturate a cotton pad and pass it over your face. But, as Mattioli points out, “You end up losing a lot of product.”

Tip: “Applying toner with clean hands is the most efficient. Just pour a few drops in your palm, then swipe it on.” Or if you prefer, you can pull apart a cotton pad “so it’s not so thick before putting toner on it,” Mattioli advises. Most formulas can be used morning and night, but you might want to use those with exfoliating acids only at night or every other day.  


Treating With Serums

Simply put, serums are powerful skin allies. Filled with concentrated doses of active ingredients, these elixirs can mitigate a number of issues, from dark spots to wrinkles. “Even if you don’t have any specific issues, everyone still needs a general antioxidant serum in the morning to protect from daily aggressors,” Mattioli says. While there are “limitless options” for ingredients, Nazarian singles out her hardworking favorites. To handle specific issues, look for these products:  


  • Hyaluronic acid to seal in hydration and strengthen the barrier function (the top layer of your skin) to prevent moisture loss.

  • Vitamin C to help brighten dull skin and decrease dark spots with continued use.

  • Retinol, vitamin B3, peptides to stimulate the production of collagen and elastin, proteins in the body that help prevent lines and skin sagging. 

  • Colloidal sulfur, niacinamide to calm redness and irritation by decreasing inflammation, and improve acne with its antimicrobial effects.

Helpful Hints and Pointers

If you have multiple concerns, you might want to use multiple formulas. “I recommend treating different areas with different products,” Mattioli says. “Maybe you’ll use a vitamin C serum all over but then dab on [another] for hyperpigmentation on just a few spots.” Just run any combination by your dermatologist to avoid any potential reactions. 

To save time, don’t try mixing a serum into your moisturizer. This “lessens the ability of the serum to absorb effectively,” Dr. Nazarian says. “Products should be applied one by one.” 


Moisturizing

The most basic function of a moisturizer is to hydrate and soften the skin. “Essentially, moisturizers assist in preventing water loss through the outer layers of skin,” Dr. Charles explains. “They can also complement the naturally found protective oils and other building blocks within the skin, such as ceramides.” This is one product that doctors recommend using year-round, for all skin types. “Skin naturally loses the ability to retain moisture as we age,” Dr. Nazarian insists, “and daily activities, such as washing, can strip natural hydrators from the surface.”

How to Pick a Moisturizer

“Everyone needs moisture, but the texture of your moisturizer will differ depending on your skin type,” Mattioli notes. Consider this your cheat-sheet, courtesy of Dr. Nazarian.

The Difference Between a Day and Night Cream

Creams you apply in the morning are equipped to protect your skin from the environmental aggressors you’ll face when you leave the house—many contain antioxidants to minimize pollution-based free radicals and sunscreen to shield you from ultraviolet radiation. They typically have a lightweight consistency. Night creams, on the other hand, focus on repairing any damage you might have picked up with ingredients like retinol to speed cellular turnover and counteract dark spots. These creams also replenish moisture levels, which naturally dip in the evening, with emollients that often create a rich, thick texture. 

Eye Creams, Explained

Can you survive without an eye cream? Absolutely. But, if you have specific concerns — like hyperpigmentation, dryness or puffiness — you might want to try one. “The skin around the eyes is quite thin and delicate, and more likely to react to irritating ingredients than other areas,” Dr. Nazarian says. “Therefore, dermatologists typically recommend an eye cream that considers the potential sensitivity and has more tolerable concentrations of active ingredients.”

For undereye bags and inflammation, caffeine, peptides and hyaluronic acid can be soothing, Mattioli says. “Dark circles can be due to visible veins or actual discoloration common in darker skin tones,” she says. “Look for brightening ingredients like vitamin C, kojic acid and niacinamide.” Insider tip: Steer clear of strong retinols (which can sting and create redness) and fragrance, to avoid any eye irritation.   

Protect With Sunscreen

All of the experts we consulted unanimously agreed on one thing: that sunscreen is, hands down, the most crucial skin-care product. It’s “of utmost importance as part of your year-round regimen,” Dr. Charles points out. “Daily and consistent sunscreen use helps to prevent the development of fine lines and wrinkles, textural imperfections, and changes in the appearance of pores over time. More importantly, daily sunscreen use can help to prevent the formation of certain skin cancers.” To make it easy to remember, experts recommend using a daily moisturizer with a built-in broad spectrum SPF of at least 30.


Sunscreen Application 101

Consider this your rule of thumb, according to Dr. Nazarian: “Apply sunscreen 30 minutes before sun exposure, and reapply at least every two hours. Chemical sunscreens should be applied directly to clean skin, while physical blockers can be applied last in your skin-care regimen, but before makeup is applied. About two tablespoons of sunscreen are appropriate to cover your face and exposed areas of your body; within that amount, use a nickel-size dollop to cover your face.”


Are Face Masks Worth All the Hype?

To say that face masks have become popular lately is a bit of an understatement — Sephora has more than 400 varieties (and 60 of those launched in the last few months). Masks “offer highly concentrated treatments to address specific issues,” says New York City dermatologist Dr. Joshua Zeichner. But unlike a toner or a serum, masks deliver ingredients under occlusion, which helps the ingredients absorb more efficiently, notes Dr. Nazarian.

Then there’s the fun factor: Many of the latest innovations bubble up, turn colors and peel off. Yes, it’s a little gimmicky, and this step is certainly not essential in your routine. “Think of masks like boosters — not necessary but beneficial,” Mattioli says.

If you want to give one a whirl, here are three performance-driven varieties to consider, according to Mattioli:

Sheet masks: “These are primarily hydrating. Having ingredients saturated on the skin in this occlusive manner keeps air from getting in and you’ll get a higher absorption in a short amount of time. I always recommend keeping these in the fridge to get an anti-inflammatory benefit as well.”

Sleeping packs or overnight masks: “Overnight masks or sleeping packs will have a thicker texture and help trap in whatever ingredients you layer underneath. They’re ideal for mature skin or severely dry skin.”

Clay or mud masks: "These absorb oil and can have a mild exfoliating effect — so they’re great for oily areas. You don’t have to put it on your whole face, though. You can target just a few areas. In fact, I love multi-masking: using a clay on the t-zone and a hydrating one everywhere else.”   

Insider tip: Apply masks after serum but before moisturizer, unless it’s a leave-on overnight mask, which can take the place of your nighttime moisturizer. Like any product that supplements your regular routine, masks should be used in moderation — no more than once a week to prevent any irritation, Dr.  Zeichner says.


What Can I Do When My Skin Gets Irritated?

Many times skin irritation, from acne to eczema, can be traced back to overzealous habits. “Unfortunately, a lot of what I do is get people back to having healthy skin from overuse of products — stripping cleansers, items that over-exfoliate or contain sensitizing ingredients — which they were using as a foundation for healthy skin but it took them farther away from it,” Holey says. To bring your skin back to its baseline, she suggests the following holistic remedies:


  • Run cold water over your pulse points, such as your wrists, to lower your internal body temperature, which calms your skin, too.

  • Apply an oatmeal mask to rid yourself of inflammation. Mix dried oats with a few spoonfuls of water. Spread this paste on your skin, and let it sit until it’s semi-dry, then rinse off.

  • Use chilled, steeped green tea as a rinse that you splash on your face. EGCG (Epigallocatechin gallate), a polyphenol in green tea, has an “immediate soothing effect,” Holey says.

  • Try acupuncture to improve circulation, digestion and immunity internally, all of which supports healthy skin externally. Holey recommends weekly treatments initially, then monthly maintenance sessions.

  • Live well: you can read stress on your face — literally, since high levels of cortisol (a stress hormone) can weaken your skin, bring on acne and even accelerate wrinkling. Holey’s advice? Exercise regularly, get your rest, meditate or find ways to feel positive. The results will show. 




About the Author

Kari Molvar is a freelance beauty writer with a specialty, and special obsession, with skincare. She is a frequent digital contributor to T Magazine.   

Illustrations by Konstantin Kakanias, Animation by Jonathan Eden





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